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History of mechanical engineering

Simple mechanical tool cortex is a pioneer in later arise. Thousands of years ago, mankind has created a car for cereals and mortar shelling and grinding mill, for providing water shadoof and pulley, equipped with wheels, navigation in rivers and paddle boats, oars, rudder and so on. Power used by the animal to human development, wind and water. The materials from natural stone, wood, earth, leather and other development to the synthetic material. The first synthetic material is a ceramic. Manufacture of ceramic ware pottery car, it is having a complete mechanical power transmission and working three parts. Blower on the development of human society played an important role. Powerful blast furnace allows to obtain metallurgical furnace temperature high enough to afford to take refining metals from ore. Western Zhou Dynasty, China has already used smelting in the blower. 15 to 16 centuries ago, the slow development of mechanical engineering.

    After the 17th century, the rapid development of the capitalist commodity economy in Britain, France and other countries, many people working to improve the work of various industries require the development of new machinery and power machinery - steam engine. The late 18th century, the steam engine from the mining industry to promote the application of textile, flour and metallurgical industries. Making machinery main material gradually changed from a metal timber. Machinery manufacturing industry began to take shape, and gradually become an important industry. In mechanical engineering from the dispersion, mainly dependent on the development of art and craft artisans individual talents become theoretical guidance, systematic and independent engineering techniques. Mechanical engineering is a major contributing factor in 18 to 19 century technology of the industrial revolution and capitalist machinery of mass production.

    Development of mechanical power late 17th century, with improved mechanical, coal and metal ores increased demand, rely only on human and animal production can not meet the increasing demands, so in the early 18th century, the emergence of T. Newcomen's atmospheric steam engine,

    Mine drainage pump for driving. In 1765, J. Watt invented the steam engine has a separate condenser to reduce the fuel consumption rate. In 1781, Watt has created a steam engine providing rotary power to expand the scope of application of the steam engine. The invention of the steam engine and the development, promotion of mining and industrial production, railways and handling of mechanical power. 19th century almost the only source of power. But the steam engine and its huge boiler, condenser and cooling water systems, volume, bulky and inconvenient to use. Early application of steam power plant as a prime mover; the early 20th century, the emergence of high-efficiency, high-speed, high-power turbine, there have been all kinds of water resources to adapt to a large, low-power turbine. The internal combustion engine of the late 19th century after the invention improved year after year, becoming light and small, high efficiency, easy manipulation of the prime mover and ready to start. Initially an internal combustion engine for driving the machine did not work onshore power supply, and later used in automobiles, mobile machinery (such as tractors, mining machinery, etc.) and ships, mid 20th century for railway locomotives. One of the successful development of the internal combustion engine on the basis of technical factors and gas turbines and jet engines after the invention, or aircraft, spacecraft and so on.

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